The Cross, Fish, Menorah, and Star of David as Divine Symbols






An Essay by Helena Lehman

Copyright © 2004 - 2013





Introduction: 1

The Cross as a Symbol for Christ and His Creation: 3

The Cross in a Circle as a Symbol for Christ as Creator God  3

Illustrations Showing Orion’s Ties to the Crucifixion of Christ 5

The Menorah-Star-Fish Symbol for Messianic Judaism: 6

The Star of David as a Symbol for Judaism: 7

The Menorah as a Symbol of Israel: 9

Zechariah’s Vision Of The Menorah as a Symbol of Israel: 11

The Fish or Ichthys as a Symbol for Christianity: 11

Graphic: Pisces and Aquarius - Sign of Jonah in the Star Gospel 13

An Ancient Christian Grave Marker Displaying Fish Symbols 14

Conclusion: 14




It grieves my heart when well-meaning people of faith condemn various Judeo-Christian symbols like the Cross, the Fish, the Menorah, and the Star of David as Pagan or occultic symbols. I say well-meaning because they have all been swayed by the misinformation on web sites and in books that claim that most of the symbols used by Jews and Christians today have a Pagan or occultic origin. Therefore, it’s no wonder that these people often see an imaginary demon lurking behind any and every symbol. However, as proven in my Language of God Book Series, all things were created as good by Yahweh in the first place, and all the symbolic associations within the material Universe were likely originally associated with the goodness of their Creator as well.


It shouldn’t come as a surprise to us that Yahweh wants to engage our hearts, minds and spirits with the righteous messages that are allegorically evident everywhere in His Creation. After all, Yahweh specifically created mankind in His image so that we can have a deeper and more rewarding relationship with God than any other creature within the Universe, including the angels. For this reason, we were given intellectual, emotional, and spiritual capacities that far exceed those of any other living thing.


When the Preincarnate Yahshua (i.e. Jesus) walked in the Garden of Eden with Adam and Eve, it would seem logical that He did so not only to enjoy their company, but to instruct them in the ways of righteousness, and to check on their intellectual and spiritual progress (Genesis 3:8). Since mankind learns faster when taught to visualize concepts and ideas, and can remember concepts better when they are associated with symbols, it makes sense that God would teach us with the allegorical symbols that He lovingly created in the world to instruct and witness to us and His holy angels.


In this way, Yahshua would have encouraged Adam and Eve to use their God-given intellect and imagination to see the countless associations between God’s character and righteous laws, and the symbols that God placed in nature and mankind when they were created. Because of their divine origin, these symbols necessarily illustrated the goodness and perfection of Yahweh and His Creation. However, though Adam and Eve were initially innocent and perfect, and would not have fully understood the concept of evil, the symbols representing evil in the world were certainly already in place too. This is because God is omnipotent. He foreknew every aspect of the future, and the place that evil would play in it. Therefore, this knowledge would have been reflected in God’s material creation - especially in the Gospel in the Stars. In fact, the four most important symbols within the Judeo-Christian faith that we will explore in this essay have an amazing connection to the Star Gospel.


Coming from my unique perspective as a one time Roman Catholic, turned Evangelical Christian, turned Messianic Christian and Symbologist who has been repeatedly instructed about God’s symbolic Language via visions and dreams, I have come to respect and appreciate rather than condemn the four biggest symbols of the Judeo-Christian faith: the Cross, the Fish, the Menorah, and the Shield or Star of David. Indeed, after careful study and prayer, it has become apparent to me that these images were divinely ordained to serve as Judeo-Christian symbols, and they all have a reason to be utilized and celebrated because of the incredible meaning each one of them conveys about the Author and Finisher of our faith: Yahshua the Messiah, a.k.a. Jesus the Christ.

The Cross as a Symbol for Christ and His Creation:

First, let me explain why the Cross is neither Pagan, nor a uniquely Christian symbol, but has roots connecting it to the earliest worshippers of Yahweh, who utilized and studied Sacred Astronomy to draw closer to God before the Bible was written. As cited by the First Century Jewish historian Josephus in His “Antiquities of the Jews,” the antediluvians in the line of Seth were the first to understand the science of Astronomy. In addition, they were attributed with building two monuments in Egypt to preserve their knowledge of the heavens (Antiquities of the Jews, Section 1.2.3, verses 68-70).

The Cross in a Circle as a Symbol for Christ as Creator God

What Josephus doesn’t say, but what is implied, is that these same Sethites preserved their enormous knowledge of God and prophecy in the same monuments, since the science of Astronomy explores the Heavenly Tablets discovered by the Sethite patriarch Enoch. The term “Heavenly Tablets,” which is found in the Book of 1 Enoch and the Book of Jubilees (See 1 Enoch 93:1-2, 103:1, 106:18-107:1; Jubilees 3:10, 31, 4:32, 5:13, 6:17,29, 35, 15:26, 16:3,9,29, etc.), most likely refers to the ancient 48-constellation Zodiac. Having said this, it is important to remember here that the Sethites did not worship the heavens, or the structures built to preserve what the heavens reveal. Instead, they built lasting monuments to serve as giant puzzles inspiring man’s imagination, and to serve as altars and temples to Yahweh. Uncannily, these monuments also announced the coming of the great Deliverer that God promised to send in Genesis 3:15, and in the Star Gospel.

From the earliest times, a cross within a circle represented the Sun, which is a metaphorical symbol of the goodness and light of Yahweh and His Son Yahshua, Who is described as shining like the Sun in Matthew 17:2 and Revelation 1:16. He is also called “the Sun of Righteousness” in Malachi 4:2. Indeed, this is certainly the meaning behind using the Celtic Cross as a symbol of Christianity for Millennia in the British Isles. Therefore, could the Sethites have known this Scriptural knowledge and associated the Sun and stars with the enclosed cross symbol, and utilized the pyramidion, which looks like a cross within a square from overhead, to depict stars? In addition, could the three Old Kingdom pyramids built before the Flood at Giza in Egypt be the monuments the Sethites built to represent certain stars, as well as astronomical knowledge and spiritual concepts? All of my research has led me to draw these conclusions.


The association of pyramidions with stars, with the Sun (as the closest star to the Earth), with Astronomy, with God, and with theological concepts is especially evident in the Pyramid Complex at Giza, which features three enormous stone pyramids that exactly mimic the size and alignment of the three central stars in the middle of the hourglass-shaped constellation Orion. These stars are seen as the symbolic belt of the mythological Greek hero Orion, who was the satanic substitute for Yahshua - the true Messiah that the Orion constellation actually represents.


As shown in the Language of God Book Series, Orion has a special place within the forty-eight constellations of the ancient Zodiac, which was known as the Mazzaroth to the biblical patriarchs. Orion is one of the three decan signs of Taurus the Bull, and it was associated with the Tribe of Joseph in the death-bed prophecies of both Jacob and Moses. Since Joseph married a Gentile, Taurus also represents the countless Gentiles of every people group that are being adopted into Israel when they believe in Christ as their Savior. As a decan of Taurus, Orion is like another chapter of the initial story revealed by Taurus, which represents both a mighty, raging bull, and the slain bull used as an atonement sacrifice for all Israel. In this way, the conquering bull representing Israel, and the Messiah signified by Orion and the sacrificed bull are all connected.


Amazingly, there are three belt stars in Orion’s belt, just as there were three crosses on Calvary when Yahshua was crucified. In addition, two of the three belt stars of Orion overlap a huge reddish-hued nebula that is suggestive of the color of the blood that Yahshua shed for our sins on Calvary. In addition, the hourglass shape of the Orion constellation can also be seen as the Kiddush cup or chalice of blessing used on Passover, and at the Last Supper of Christ. This cup of new wine signifies Christ’s own blood that was shed once and for all time for the remission of sin. This means that the constellation Orion signifies the most important spiritual event in history: the death of Christ on the Cross - without which there would be no forgiveness of sin, and no resurrection to everlasting life.


In addition to the three big pyramids at Giza representing the crosses connected to Christ’s sacrifice, the Great Sphinx with its leonine posterior and woman’s face represents Leo and Virgo, which are the beginning and ending signs of the ancient Mazzaroth, just as Christ is the Beginning and the End of all Creation (See Rev. 1:8, Rev. 21:6, and Rev. 22:13, and illustrations).

Illustrations Showing Orion’s Ties to the Crucifixion of Christ




Together with the pyramids connected to Orion and Taurus, the Great Sphinx also marks two signs in the celestial cross formed by the four fixed signs of the Zodiac representing north (Scorpio), south (Taurus), east (Virgo) and west (Leo). In this way, all of God’s Creation is marked by this giant celestial cross that signifies the totality of God’s creative acts, as well as the greatness of its Creator, who was born as a man, and died upon a cross signifying an altar in the shape of His Creation!


Because of these incredible associations between Christ and the crosses in the Mazzaroth, there is no doubt in my mind that the symbol of the Cross was, is now, and always will be associated with Yahshua as the Creator and Savior of the World. Now that I have deciphered the meaning of the Cross for you, let me show you the godly messages hidden within the other three symbols mentioned in the title of this essay: the Fish, the Menorah, and the Star of David.

The Menorah-Star-Fish Symbol for Messianic Judaism:

Remarkably, all three of these symbols were associated with the very first Christians in Jerusalem. As evidenced in the book: “The Messianic Seal of the Jerusalem Church” by Reuven E. Schmalz and Raymond Fischer, the first Christians used a symbol that combined the Menorah, the Star of David, and the Fish into one pattern, as shown in this illustration. The book contains photographs of archeological artifacts that have been found marked with this fascinating symbol. It is also filled with findings indicating that both Jewish Orthodox and Roman Catholic leaders ruthlessly began to suppress the connection between Judaism and Christianity, severing Gentile Christianity’s early ties with the Jerusalem Church.


As the book explains, the Church in Jerusalem was a Messianic Jewish one, and it was connected to the Upper Room where the Last Supper took place. This Upper Room was built over the site regarded as King David’s tomb on Mount Zion, and near to it a grotto was found by an elderly monk named Tech Otecus, who lived as a hermit in the Old City of Jerusalem. Otecus claimed that he personally excavated about 40 artifacts bearing the Messianic Seal from this ancient grotto in the 1960’s. As proof of this claim, Otecus presented eight artifacts marked with the Messianic Seal to Ludwig Schneider, the editor in chief of the NAI magazine “Israel Today” in 1990, which were subsequently proven to be authentic. An example of one appears in the image below.


The book also makes the claim that this symbol of early Judeo-Christianity was reduced to just the Fish in the wake of Rome’s supposed purging of all Jewish rituals and symbols out of Christianity. However, it is far more likely that this purging occurred closer to the Third Century, and not in the First Century AD. Indeed, Fish symbols already marked the entrances to First Century Christian catacombs and sanctuaries in Rome that were undoubtedly built before the ties between the Jerusalem and Roman Churches were severed. It therefore appears that this early stylized fish was always meant to symbolize the ritually different Gentile branch of Christianity, while the three part Menorah-Star-Fish symbol is rightly associated with the unique ritual and symbolic heritage of Messianic Jews who believe that Yahshua is the Messiah.

The Star of David as a Symbol for Judaism:

Because this Messianic symbol containing a Star of David in its center was clearly associated with the earliest branch of Messianic Judaism and Christianity in First Century Jerusalem, it absolutely disproves the claim that the Star of David was a Pagan symbol with no record of use in ancient Israel. Nonetheless, some scholars still think that the Star of David was originally used as a symbol for the Pagan god Moloch or the planet Saturn, which was seen as the wandering star called Chiun or Remphan in ancient times:

“Then God turned and gave them up to worship the host of heaven, as it is written in the book of the Prophets: ‘Did you offer Me slaughtered animals and sacrifices during forty years in the wilderness, O house of Israel? You also took up the tabernacle of Moloch, and the star of your god Remphan, images which you made to worship; and I will carry you away beyond Babylon.’ ” - Acts 7:42-43 (NKJ)


This Scripture, and its associated Old Testament verses in Amos 5:25-27 are often cited when condemning the use of the Star of David as a symbol for Judaism, since it is this star that is supposedly connected to the gods Moloch (i.e. Baal), and Chiun or Saturn - whose mythological aspects were often seen as malevolent. However, there is absolutely no documented evidence that the Star of David was ever ascribed to the worship of Saturn, or that any hexagram or six-pointed star graced a temple or object dedicated to Saturn or Moloch at any time or place in history.


On the contrary, the cosmological view of the Universe found in Jewish mysticism counted the planet Saturn as the seventh and final symbol of importance in their seven-object understanding of the Solar System surrounding our Earth, which consisted of the Sun, the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. As such, Saturn became associated with the Sabbath, or seventh day of the week, which was called Saturn’s Day, or Saturday by the Romans. Unlike pious Jews, however, the Greeks and Romans also saw the seventh day as sacred to the false god Saturn, whom they erroneously worshipped.


In Jewish mysticism, the planet Saturn is not seen as a god, but has always been connected to the Sabbath rest of Yahweh, and with ceasing work to contemplate God’s greatness, and to praise God for His goodness. In regard to its placement in the night sky, Saturn also became associated with redemption and blessing among the Jews, which is the exact opposite of how Pagan astrologers viewed it. In addition, though the seven-part Star of David is not mentioned by name in the Bible, Menorahs, almond blossoms, and stars are. In fact, stars are often mentioned as holy symbols, and Yahshua the Messiah is called the Morning Star (Holy stars: Genesis 15:5; Job 38:6-7; Psalm 147:4; Daniel 12:3; 1 Cor. 15:41-42; Philip. 2:15 - Morning Star: 2 Peter 1:19; Rev. 2:26-28, Rev. 22:16). This is interesting because, throughout history, the planet Venus has been called the Morning Star when it rises before the Sun, and all the planets can be viewed as wandering stars.

It is also interesting to note that, with the enormous modern resurgence of Anti-Semitism that is forcefully being promulgated by Muslims and Neo-Nazis everywhere, the attacks being made on the Star of David - which has undeniably become the modern symbol for the nation of Israel - are often poorly veiled attempts at Anti-Semitism. This can be seen in the false teaching that the Star of David is the Mark of the Beast because it has six points, six triangles, and six hexagon sides. However, the Hexagram shape of the Star of David is more properly viewed as two overlapping triangles, or six triangles and one hexagon, which equals seven shapes, not six!


Interestingly, the Star of David contains a total of twenty-four points or sides if the sides or points of all six triangles, plus the six sides or points of the center hexagon are counted (6 X 3) + 6 = 24. If all those would-be hate and fear mongers out there who view the Star of David as evil were being honest, they would and should count all twenty-four of its sides. Even more interestingly, in Revelation’s vision of God’s throne in Heaven, it is surrounded by twenty-four elders and four six-winged Cherubim representing six ages of time (Rev. 4:4-8). Could it therefore be that the Star of David is also an allegorical emblem for God’s throne? Now, there’s something to think about!


The Star of David can also be constructed from two opposite-facing triangles overlapping each other, or from twelve interlocking triangles in a hexagram shape, as shown in the illustration at the beginning of this section. This connects the Star of David with the calendar and Astronomy again, as each of the twelve triangles can be connected to one of the twelve Zodiac signs, and the three decan constellations associated with each sign can be connected to the three sides of each triangle, thereby totaling the forty-eight celestial signs envisioned in the ancient Zodiac. Though Pagan astrologers taught otherwise to their eternal damnation, the Twelve Signs of the Ancient Zodiac, or Mazzaroth were connected as symbolic banners for the Twelve Tribes of Israel, and it is also likely that they represented the first twelve patriarchs descended from Adam in the lines of Seth and Shem.

The Menorah as a Symbol of Israel:

Because the Star of David can be viewed as six triangles surrounding a hexagon, it has been associated with the number seven, and can be connected to both the Sabbath, and a circular (as opposed to linear) Menorah. As shown repeatedly in my books, the Menorah serves as a light-bearing symbol that can illuminate many hidden meanings in Scripture. One such example can be seen when the seven original Feasts of Israel are connected to the lamps in a seven-branched Menorah. When this is done, the Servant Lamp at the center - which lights all the other lamps and also represents Christ - is connected to the fourth Feast of Israel called Pentecost, a.k.a. Shavuot, or the Feast of Weeks.


As shown in “The Language of God in Humanity” the almond blossom, which has six petals surrounding its pistil, is also a symbol for the Star of David and Menorahs, which have six points or branches radiating outward from the center. Perhaps this is why the almond blossom was divinely prescribed as a decorative device on the very first Menorah cast for use in the Tabernacle of Yahweh built by Moses (Exodus 25:33-35). In this way, the Menorah can be viewed as a beautiful, blooming almond tree alight with God’s Spirit that signifies the pleasant fragrance of faith, and the shining promise of spiritual fruit.


Besides being associated with an almond blossom, the Menorah can be connected to the Star of David as a circular Menorah that has six triangular branches and one hexagonal base. Therefore, the Menorah that is shaped like a Star of David also has seven parts corresponding to the seven days of the week, just as a linear Menorah does. In similar fashion, the Prophet Zechariah had a vision of a Menorah that was constructed from a center bowl or globe with seven lamps on branches radiating from it (Zech. 4:2). In Zechariah’s vision of the menorah the center globe represented the oil of the Holy Spirit, which was being fed into this menorah from the branches of two olive trees that flanked it on either side.


This vision of a seven-branched menorah between two olive trees feeding its base with oil suggests that Zechariah was envisioning the Chanukah version of a Menorah. This nine branched Menorah was not to become a part of Judaism until after the rededication of the Temple at the time of the short-lived Maccabean kingdom of Israel. In the Protestant Bible, Chanukah or the Feast of Dedication is only mentioned once - in connection with Yahshua in the Temple to Yahweh in Jerusalem (John 10:22-23).

Zechariah’s Vision Of The Menorah as a Symbol of Israel:


In Catholic Bibles and in collections of apocryphal writings, the story of the rededication of the Second Temple is found in 1 Maccabees. Chanukah, which is also known as the Festival of Light partly celebrates the fact that the seven-branched temple Menorah miraculously stayed lit for eight days on one day’s worth of oil at the time of the Temple’s rededication. This feast also represents the temporary triumph of the Israelites over Hellenistic influences, which allowed them to live their uniquely scriptural and holy way of life. Celebrating this miracle led to the use of the prophetically significant nine-branched Menorah known as a Chanukiah.


        As a bringer of light, the Menorah has become associated with the Torah, which brings the truth of God’s Law to light. Interestingly, the Menorah gives light via the mechanism of olive oil, which represents the presence of the Holy Spirit, as it does allegorically in the lamps of the five wise virgins in the Parable of the Ten Virgins (Matthew 25:1-12). In addition, the lamps held by the five wise virgins also represent the truth given to mankind through Yahshua, who is the Light of the World, and who gives all of His born-again followers the same ability to be lights in the world through His Holy Spirit (Matthew 5:14-16; John 8:12, John 9:5).

The Fish or Ichthys as a Symbol for Christianity:      

My book “The Language of God in Humanity” also explores the representation of the Fish, or Ichthys as a Judeo-Christian symbol. This symbol is formed with a stylized image of a fish, which can be used alone or with various words placed inside it. In one example, the Greek word for fish, which is pronounced “Ichthys” is often used because it is written in Greek as IXOYE. This forms the acrostic “Iesous, Christos, Theou, Yios, Soter” or “Jesus, Christ, God’s, Son, Savior.” It can also occasionally be found with the Greek letters for the name “Jesus”, which is “Iesous”, written within it. This symbol was used by the Early Church to identify some Christian communities and burials. This symbol is Scriptural, and was actually introduced by Christ when referring to His death on the Cross, and His miraculous resurrection into everlasting life that would follow it:


“But He answered and said to them, ‘An evil and adulterous generation seeks after a sign, and no sign will be given to it except the sign of the prophet Jonah. For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the great fish, so will the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.’” - Matthew 12:39-40


The mysterious “Sign of Jonah” that Yahshua mentioned in the above Scripture partially refers to the three days and nights that Yahshua spent in Hades before being resurrected, which mimics the three days and nights Jonah spent in the belly of the big fish before being spit onto land (Jonah 1:17; Matthew 12:40; Luke 24:46). In addition, though few scholars have made the connection due to their unfamiliarity with the Star Gospel, the Sign of Jonah is also a reference to the Zodiac sign of Aquarius the Water-Bearer, as well as the neighboring sign of Pisces the Fishes. For example, Pisces is represented by two fish swimming in different directions, but that are tethered to each other by a band. These two fishes signify the lines of Cain and Seth, the lines of Isaac and Ishmael, the descendents of Jacob and Esau, the two divided kingdoms of Israel after Solomon’s reign, and the apostate and faithful branches of the Church found among Gentiles and Messianics.


Now, the fish of Pisces that is swimming directly toward Aquarius is partly a symbol for the faithful, Spirit-filled Church, while Aquarius is a symbol for the divine grace and judgment given both before and after the Great Flood. Aquarius was classically depicted as a man holding a big heavenly urn that has an inexhaustible supply of water pouring out of it. This water is flowing into two streams, with one running directly into the mouth of a big fish constellation known as Piscis Australis.


At its most basic level, the man with the urn in Aquarius is a symbol for Yahweh dispensing His righteous judgment against sin and evil through the Great Flood (Genesis 6:11-14, Genesis 7:11-13). Likewise, it depicts the much smaller storm that drove some terrified sailors to toss Jonah into the sea (Jonah 1:5-15). However, it also signifies the perfect Grace dispensed by the resurrected Christ as He pours out His Holy Spirit on all mankind. This is likely why Yahshua asked His disciples to follow a man carrying a water jug just before the Last Supper (See Luke 22:10). 

Graphic: Pisces and Aquarius - Sign of Jonah in the Star Gospel


Likewise, the big fish called Piscis Australis, which is a decan of Aquarius, can simultaneously be viewed as a symbol for Noah and his family inside the Ark, Jonah within the belly of the big fish, and the Spirit-filled Messianic Jews and Christians who will do great things in God’s Name, just like Noah and Jonah did.


As discussed in my Language of God Book Series, many stories that are immortalized in the Bible and the Gospel in the Stars have truly remarkable connections to all four of the Judeo-Christian symbols discussed in this essay. Because of these associations, these symbols are directly connected to the hidden Language of God, and were likely divinely chosen to teach us spiritual truths that were, are, and always will be associated with Judaism and Christianity.

An Ancient Christian Grave Marker Displaying Fish Symbols


Though it would be impossible to deny that the symbols of Judeo-Christianity have false occult applications, the point of this essay is that they were misappropriated, and have a legitimate place in Judeo-Christianity. Despite their exalted status and meaning, however, these divinely chosen symbols were never meant to be worshipped as idols, or to become more important than the one triune God they reveal amazing truths about. They were not meant to be idols, but icons symbolizing the greatest truths of our faith. Indeed, anyone who worships these symbols like the Pagans is doing a great disservice to Yahweh, who is far greater than any symbol or material thing in His Creation.


The whole point of this essay has been to show that the four symbols associated with Judeo-Christianity - the Cross, the Menorah, the Star of David and the Fish - have a holy origin. Despite the fact that all four of these symbols have been misused by evil people and perverted by Pagans, occultists, witches, Freemasons, and atheists, they still had their origin in holiness, and have a powerful message of Gospel truth to share with those who are not spiritually blind, deaf or dumb to Yahweh’s Spirit.


These symbols can be viewed like the Great Pyramid. This pyramid - which was built BEFORE the Great Flood by the Sethites - was an idol to the Ancient Egyptians, who were born after the Flood. They did not know, or had forgotten its true purpose, and so they ascribed it to their false gods, and used it as a Pagan temple rather than the altar to Yahweh God that it was originally created to be. But does the misappropriation of the Great Pyramid make its message of Christ and Salvation any less powerful or true? NO! No false association could ever destroy the beauty of the truth!


To learn how the Great Pyramid is a holy symbol, all four of my books in “The Language of God” Book Series explore this symbol, and many other symbols of the righteous among the Sethites and Shemites in depth, and can be purchased at my Pillar of Enoch Ministry web site bookstore:


Do not be fooled! Though many may come and say Yahshua is not the Son of God, or the Word of God made flesh, they are liars! The same is true for the four symbols associated with Judeo-Christianity. Though many will say they are evil, and will find all sorts of seemingly convincing proofs, they are mistaken!


The truth is that God appropriated these symbols for His use before the foundations of the world were made, and no Pagan or occultist can change that - no matter how hard they try to destroy or misappropriate, misrepresent or mislabel every holy symbol that Yahweh God created as good!




NOTE: All Scriptures quoted in this article were taken from the PC Study Bible using the New King James Version of the Bible, Thomas Nelson, Inc. © 1982. This article may be freely distributed for non-commercial use if Helena Lehman is acknowledged as the author, and at least one link to The Pillar of Enoch Ministry web site at is included in the article notes. The illustrations are copyrighted and are the property of Helena Lehman. Please ask for permission prior to using these illustrations by using the contact information at the POEM web site linked to above. Thank you.